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GREEK EDUCATION                         37

Greek States into the Macedonian Empire and the beginnings of
that cosmopolitan movement of thought which found its philo-
sophical expression in the self-sufficient wise man of the Stoics ;
and while he himself still believed that " man is by nature a
political animal/' and that the fullest realization of his political
nature was only possible in the little city states of Greece, the
individualistic trend is plainly disccrnable in him. Note, for
example, the statement that prefaces his discussion of education
in the Politics : " A city can be virtuous only when the citizens
who have a share in the government are virtuous; and in our
state all the citizens share in the government. Let us then inquire
how a man becomes virtuous* For even if we could suppose all
the citizens to be virtuous, and not each of them, yet the latter
would be better, for in the virtue of each, the virtue of all is

So far as education is concerned, Aristotle is led in the same
direction by one of his metaphysical doctrines, Plato found the
reality of things in their ideas: Aristotle, developing and cor-
recting Plato, found reality not in the ideas themselves but in the
ideas as embodied in definite individual beings, especially in such
beings as animals and man that realize themselves by unfolding
their distinctive form or idea from within. Now education in
one aspect of it is just this process of self-realization. Man's
nature as man depends on the fact that when fully developed he
is a rational being : reason, in Aristotle's language, is his deter-
mining form or idea. It is the reason that ultimately reveals
itself in him that is at work from the beginning, impelling and
guiding the course of his growth.

The result of this emphasis on individuality is that Aristotle
approaches the discussion of education from two sides; on its
social aide as an art subordinate to the art of politics; on its
individual side as a process of self-realissation by development
from within. The fact that his main discussion of the subject
occurs in the course of a survey of political theories seems to
indicate that he regarded the former as the more important but
in point of fact most of what he has to say is about the individual
rather than the social aspect of education.

Here is a brief statement of his view: " In men, in the first
place, reason and mind are the end towards which nature strives.